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Several biomarkers are gaining attention as early indicators of acute kidney injury (AKI). Studies suggest that blood or urine tests for these biomarkers can detect acute kidney damage earlier than currently used kidney function tests, such as serum creatinine. Imaging techniques such as an ultrasound, CT scan (computed tomography), isotope scan, or intravenous pyelogram (IVP) may be used. Biomarkers for early diagnosis of AKI in the ICU: ready for prime time use at the bedside?

Some examples of these tests include: If a structural problem or blockage is suspected, imaging of the kidneys can be helpful.

Early detection of AKI is critical because injury occurs rapidly over a period of hours to days.

AKI biomarkers are still being studied and may become more widely available in the future.

Attached to each glomerulus is a tiny tube (tubule) that collects the fluid and molecules that pass through the glomerulus and then reabsorbs what can be used by the body. The kidneys control the quantity and quality of fluids within the body. Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, DC.

They also produce and release erythropoietin (EPO), which stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells, renin, which helps control blood pressure, and calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, which is needed to maintain calcium for teeth and bones and for normal chemical balance in the body.

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